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Recent Publications
Virtues and Passions in Literature: Excellence, Courage, Engagements, Wisdom, Fulfilment
Tymieniecka, A. (Ed.) (2007). Virtues and Passions in Literature: Excellence, Courage, Engagements, Wisdom, Fulfilment, Hanover, NH: Springer, 2007 Paradoxically, our human virtues that maintain our societal fabric, emerge from passional grounds/sources in individual existence. It is the Human Condition that prompts our creative strivings beyond the natural round of life toward outstanding achievements...
Pride and Gratitude: How Positive Emotions Influence the Prosocial Behaviors of Organizational Leaders
Michie, S. (2009). Pride and Gratitude: How Positive Emotions Influence the Prosocial Behaviors of Organizational Leaders. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15 (4): 393-403. Abstract: This study investigated whether two positive morally relevant emotions, pride and gratitude, were associated with the prosocial behaviors exhibited by organizational leaders. Pride and gratitude were measured as dispositional tendencies in leaders...
Bad Drives Psychological Reactions, but Good Propels Behavior: Responses to Honesty and Deception
Wang, C. S., Galinsky, A. D., Murnighan, J. K. (2009). Bad Drives Psychological Reactions, but Good Propels Behavior: Responses to Honesty and Deception. Psychological Science, 20 (5): 634-44. Abstract: Research across disciplines suggests that bad is stronger than good and that individuals punish deception more than they reward honesty. However, methodological issues in previous research limit the latter conclusion. Three experiments resolved...
Just compassion: implications for the ethics of the scarcity paradigm in clinical healthcare provision
Maxwell, B. (2009). Just compassion: implications for the ethics of the scarcity paradigm in clinical healthcare provision. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35 (4): 219-223. Abstract: Primary care givers commonly interpret shortages of time with patients as placing them between a rock and a hard place inrespect of their professional obligations to fairly distribute available healthcare resources (justice) and to offer a quality...
Sinning Saints and Saintly Sinners: The Paradox of Moral Self-Regulation
Sachdeva, S., Iliev, R., & Medin, D. L. (2009). Sinning Saints and Saintly Sinners: The Paradox of Moral Self-Regulation. Psychological Science, 20 (4): 523-8. Abstract: The question of why people are motivated to act altruistically has been an important one for centuries, and across various disciplines. Drawing on previous research on moral regulation, we propose a framework suggesting that moral (or immoral...
Neural correlates of admiration and compassion
Immordino-Yanga, M. H., McColla, A., Damasioa, H., & Damasio, A. (2009). Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (19): 767-8. Abstract: In an fMRI experiment, participants were exposed to narratives based on true stories designed to evoke admiration and compassion in 4 distinct categories: admiration for virtue (AV), admiration for skill (AS), compassion for social/psychological...
Demandingness as a Virtue
Goodin, R. E. (2009). Demandingness as a Virtue. The Journal of Ethics, 13 (1): 1-13. Abstract: Philosophers who complain about the ‘demandingness’ of morality forget that a morality can make too few demands as well as too many. What we ought be seeking is an appropriately demanding morality. This article recommends a ‘moral satisficing...
On Measuring Forgiveness: Implications from Smallest Space Analysis of the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale
Kumar, V. K., & Ryan, R. B. (2009). On Measuring Forgiveness: Implications from Smallest Space Analysis of the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale. Current Psychology, 28 (1): 32-44. Abstract: The structure of the Rye et al.’s Forgiveness Likelihood Scale was evaluated using the principal components analysis and Guttman’s Smallest Space Analysis. Participants ( n = 98) were students in Introduction to Psychology classes. While the...
An Integrated View of Empathy: Psychology, Philosophy, and Neuroscience
Nakao, H., & Itakura, S. (2009). An Integrated View of Empathy: Psychology, Philosophy, and Neuroscience. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43 (1): 42-52. Abstract: In this paper, we will examine and untangle a conflict mainly between a developmental psychologist, Martin Hoffman and a social psychologist, Daniel Batson. According to Hoffman, empathic distress, a vicarious feeling through empathy, is transformed...
Social Evolution: The Smell of Cheating
Chapuisat, M. (2009). Social Evolution: The Smell of Cheating. Current Biology, 19 (5): R196-R19. Abstract: Coercion is a powerful means to enforce altruism and promote social cohesion in animal groups, but it requires the reliable identification of selfish individuals. Experiments in a desert ant provide the first direct proof that a single cuticular...
Schools as promoters of moral judgment: the essential role of teachers’ encouragement of critical thinking
Weinstock, M., Assor, A., & Broide, G. (2009). Schools as promoters of moral judgment: the essential role of teachers’ encouragement of critical thinking. Social Psychology of Education, 12 (1): 137-151. Abstract: The assumption that high level functioning is characterized by a great deal of autonomy is central to some major theories of moral development [Kohlberg (in T. Lickona (ed.) Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues...
Are women expected to be more generous?
Aguiar, F., Brañas-Garza, P., Cobo-Reyes, R., Jimenez, N., & Miller, L. M. (2009). Are women expected to be more generous? Experimental Economics, 12 (1): 93-8. Abstract: This paper analyzes if men and women are expected to behave differently regarding altruism . Since the dictator game provides the most suitable design for studying altruism and generosity in the lab setting, we use a modified version to study...
Is Justice the Same for Everyone? Examining Fairness Items Using Multiple-group Analysis
Byrne, Z. S., & Miller, B. K. (2009). Is Justice the Same for Everyone? Examining Fairness Items Using Multiple-group Analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24 (1): 51-64. Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine whether fairness assessed in a widely used multisource instrument written by practitioners possessed a similar factor structure as fairness measured in academic literature, and whether different...
Virtue, Reason, and the False Public Voice: Catharine Macaulay's Philosophy of Moral Education
Titone, C. (2009). Virtue, Reason, and the False Public Voice: Catharine Macaulay's Philosophy of Moral Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 41 (1): 91-108. Abstract: Catharine Macaulay, an 18 th century English historian, published her educational philosophy in Letters on Education with Observations on Religious and Metaphysical Subjects in 1790. The ultimate goal of her educational process, to 'bring...
Insecure attachment and depressive symptoms: The mediating role of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness
Burnette, J. L., Davis, D. E., Green, J. D., Worthington Jr., E. L., Bradfield, E. 2009. Insecure attachment and depressive symptoms: The mediating role of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness. Personality and Individual Differences,46 (3): 276-80. This article considers psychological disorders in the light of several virtues and vices. Abstract : The authors investigated the associations between attachment, empathy, rumination, forgiveness, and depressive symptoms via the framework of attachment...
How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness
Craig, A. D. (2009). How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10: 59-70. Abstract: The anterior insular cortex (AIC) is implicated in a wide range of conditions and behaviours, from bowel distension and orgasm, to cigarette craving and maternal love, to decision making and sudden insight. Its function in the re-representation...
The Neural Correlates of Third-Party Punishment
Buckholtz, J. W., Asplund, C. L., Dux, P. E., Zald, D. H., Gore, J. C., Jones, O. D., & Marois, R. (2008). The Neural Correlates of Third-Party Punishment. Neuron, 60 (5): 930-40. Abstract: Legal decision-making in criminal contexts includes two essential functions performed by impartial "third parties": assessing responsibility and determining an appropriate punishment. To explore the neural underpinnings of these processes...
Complex Ethics Consultations: Cases that Haunt Us
Ford, P, & Dudzinski, D. Complex Ethics Consultations: Cases that Haunt Us. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Clinical ethicists encounter the most emotionally eviscerating medical cases possible. They struggle to facilitate resolutions founded on good reasoning embedded in compassionate care. This book fills the considerable gap between current texts and the...
The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation
Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. "Who are scientists? What kind of people are they? What capacities and virtues are thought to stand behind their considerable authority? They are experts—indeed, highly respected experts—authorized to describe and interpret the natural world and...
The Good Engineer: Giving Virtue its Due in Engineering Ethics
Harris, C. E., Jr. (2008). The Good Engineer: Giving Virtue its Due in Engineering Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics, 14 (2): 153-64. Abstract: During the past few decades, engineering ethics has been oriented towards protecting the public from professional misconduct by engineers and from the harmful effects of technology. This “preventive ethics” project has been accomplished primarily...
Radical Virtues: Moral Wisdom and the Ethics of Contemporary Life
White, Richard. Radical Virtues: Moral Wisdom and the Ethics of Contemporary Life. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. "What is a good life? What does it mean to be a good person? Richard White answers these questions by considering aspects of moral goodness through the virtues: courage, temperance, justice, compassion, and wisdom. White explores how moral virtues...
Neural Correlates of Human Virtue Judgment
Takahashi, H., Kato, M., Matsuura, M., Koeda, M., Yahata, N., Suhara, T., & Okubo, Y. (2008). Neural Correlates of Human Virtue Judgment. Cerebral Cortex, 18 (8): 1886-91. Abstract: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the brain regions implicated in moral cognition. However, those studies have focused exclusively on violation of social norms and negative moral emotions, and very little effort has been expended on...
The intertwining of ethics and methodology in science and engineering: a virtue-ethical approach
Consoli, L. (2008). The intertwining of ethics and methodology in science and engineering: a virtue-ethical approach. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 33 (3): 234-43. Abstract: Ethics in engineering and science has become a hot topic not only on the agendas of academic institutions and funding agencies, but also among scientists and engineers themselves and the general public. Analysis of misconduct cases shows that...
Towards A Virtue Theory of Art
Goldie, P. (2007). Towards A Virtue Theory of Art. British Journal of Aesthetics, 47 (4): 372-87. Abstract: In this paper I sketch a virtue theory of art, analogous to a virtue theory of ethics along Aristotelian lines. What this involves is looking beyond a parochial conception of art understood as work of art, as product, to include intentions,...
Sexual Selection for Moral Virtues
Miller, G. F. (2007). Sexual Selection for Moral Virtues. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 82 (2): 97-125. Abstract: Moral evolution theories have emphasized kinship, reciprocity, group selection, and equilibrium selection. Yet, moral virtues are also sexually attractive. Darwin suggested that sexual attractiveness may explain many aspects of human morality...
Civic Virtues in Dominican Homiletic Literature in Tuscany in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
Iannella, C. (2007). Civic Virtues in Dominican Homiletic Literature in Tuscany in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Medieval Sermon Studies, 51 (1): 22-32. Abstract: From an historical perspective, the theological writings of Remigio dei Girolami and the preaching ad populum of Giordano da Pisa (different in content, form, and language) present themselves as specula societatis which reflect many aspects...
The Role of Conscious Reasoning and Intuition in Moral Judgment: Testing Three Principles of Harm
Cushman, F., Young, L., & Hauser, M. (2006). The Role of Conscious Reasoning and Intuition in Moral Judgment: Testing Three Principles of Harm. Psychological Science, 17 (12): 1082-9. Abstract: Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than...
The Significance of Music for the Promotion of Moral and Spiritual Value
Carr, D. (2006). The Significance of Music for the Promotion of Moral and Spiritual Value. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 14 (2): 103-17. Introduction: Given its time-honored place, along with other arts, in many if not most past and present school curricula it would seem that at least some forms of music have been widely credited with educational value. Beyond the general association of...
Socratic Virtue: Making the Best of the Neither-Good-Nor-Bad
Cambridge University Press "Socrates was not a moral philosopher. Instead he was a theorist who showed how human desire and human knowledge complement one another in the pursuit of human happiness. His theory allowed him to demonstrate that actions and objects have no value...
Contemporary virtue ethics
Stohr, K. (2006). Contemporary virtue ethics. Philosophy Compass, 1 (1): 22-7. Abstract: Within contemporary ethics, virtue ethics now seems to be permanently positioned as a major normative theory. Despite its popularity, however, it is often not very clear – even to virtue ethicists – what is included in the term. This article...
Decision Making: The Virtue of Patience in Primates
Long, A., & Platt, M. (2005). Decision Making: The Virtue of Patience in Primates. Current Biology, 15 (21): R874-6. Abstract: Marmoset monkeys devalue rewards requiring travel to acquire, but tamarin monkeys do not, despite the greater patience of marmosets when rewards are delayed in time. Such preference reversals, not predicted by standard economic theory, may reflect...
On the contribution of literature and the arts to the educational cultivation of moral virtue, feeling and emotion
Carr, D. (2005). On the contribution of literature and the arts to the educational cultivation of moral virtue, feeling and emotion. Journal of Moral Education, 34 (2): 137-51. Abstract: This paper sets out to explore connections between a number of plausible claims concerning education in general and moral education in particular: (i) that education is a matter of broad cultural initiation rather than narrow academic or vocational...
Anthropology as a Moral Science of Possibilities
Carrithers, M. (2005). Anthropology as a Moral Science of Possibilities. Current Anthropology, 46 (3): 433-56. Abstract: In a world of continued and expanding empire, does sociocultural anthropology in itself offer grounds for moral and social criticism? One line in anthropological thought leads to cultural relativism and an awareness that a cloud of alternative...
The Market for Virtue
Vogel, David. The Market for Virtue. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005. The principles and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) date back more than a century, but the current wave of interest in this topic is unprecedented. This heightened attention is global and is evidenced on every conceivable measure. It...
Ethical Character and Virtue of Organizations: An Empirical Assessment and Strategic Implications
Chun, R. (2005). Ethical Character and Virtue of Organizations: An Empirical Assessment and Strategic Implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 57 (3): 269-84. Abstract: Virtue ethics has often been regarded as complementary or laissez-faire ethics in solving business problems. This paper seeks conceptual and methodological improvements by developing a virtue character scale that will enable assessment of the...
Ethics and the anthropology of modern reason
Lakoff, A. (2004). Ethics and the anthropology of modern reason. Anthropological Theory, 4 (4): 419-34. Abstract: In recent years, anthropologists have shown increasing interest in scientific, technical and administrative systems and their political regulation. In what follows, we suggest that a major concern in much of this work is a common interest in...
Learning as a task or a virtue: U.S. and Chinese preschoolers explain learning
Jin, L. (2004). Learning as a task or a virtue: U.S. and Chinese preschoolers explain learning. Developmental Psychology, 40 (4): 595-605. Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine cultural influences on conceptual orientations of learning in U.S. and Chinese preschoolers. A sample of 188 preschoolers 4-6 years of age provided free-narrative responses to 2 story beginnings about...
Sharing by Default?
Widlok, T. (2004). Sharing by Default? Anthropological Theory, 4 (1): 53-70. Abstract: The establishment of moral relativism does not exhaust anthropological comparisons of how people strive for a good life. In this article I suggest that comparative research into ethical systems and moralities can be productively complemented...
Empathy for Pain Involves the Affective but not Sensory Components of Pain
Singer, T., Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Kaube, H., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2004). Empathy for Pain Involves the Affective but not Sensory Components of Pain. Science, 303 (5661): 1157-62. Abstract: Our ability to have an experience of another's pain is characteristic of empathy . Using functional imaging, we assessed brain activity while volunteers experienced a painful stimulus and compared it to that elicited when they observed a...
Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification
Peterson, C., & Seligman, E. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. New York: Oxford University Press US. "Character" has become a front-and-center topic in contemporary discourse, but this term does not have a fixed meaning. Character may be simply defined by what someone does not do, but a more active and thorough definition is necessary, one...
Moral Virtue and the Limits of the Political Community in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics
Collins, S. D. (2004). Moral Virtue and the Limits of the Political Community in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. American Journal of Political Science American Journal of Political Science, 48 (1): 47-61. Abstract: The recovery of Aristotle's view of the political community as guardian of the common good and moral educator has fueled a continuing debate about civic education and virtue. In focusing on the relation of virtue to the common good and that...
From Biology to Consciousness to Morality
Goodenough, U., & Deacon, T. W. (2003). From Biology to Consciousness to Morality. Zygon Journal of Religion and Science, 38 (4): 801-19. Abstract: Social animals are provisioned with prosocial orientations that operate to transcend self-interest. Morality , as used here, describes human versions of such orientations. We explore the evolutionary antecedents of morality in the context of...
Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest
Lieberman, D., Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2003). Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 270 (1517): 819-26. Abstract: Kin-recognition systems have been hypothesized to exist in humans, and adaptively to regulate altruism and incest avoidance among close genetic kin. This latter function allows the architecture of the kin recognition system to be mapped by quantitatively...
Moral Vice, Cognitive Virtue: Austen on Jealousy and Envy
Williams, T. (2003). Moral Vice, Cognitive Virtue: Austen on Jealousy and Envy. Philosophy and Literature, 27 (1): 223-30. Virtue theorists are fond of commending the novels of Jane Austen to moralists who agree with Elizabeth Anscombe's verdict on "modern moral philosophy" and wish to heed her call for a return to talk about virtue. And rightly so, for Austen...
Virtue Jurisprudence: A Virtue–Centred Theory of Judging
Solum, L. B. (2003). Virtue Jurisprudence: A Virtue–Centred Theory of Judging. Metaphilosophy, 34 (1-2): 178-213. Abstract: “Virtue jurisprudence” is a normative and explanatory theory of law that utilises the resources of virtue ethics to answer the central questions of legal theory. The main focus of this essay is the development of a virtue–centred theory of judging...
The self-importance of moral identity
Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83 (6): 1423-40. Abstract: Recent theorizing in moral psychology extends rationalist models by calling attention to social and cultural influences (J. Haidt, 2001). Six studies using adolescents, university students, and adults measured the associations among the self...
Is virtue its own reward? Self-sacrificial decisions for the sake of fairness
Turillo, C. J., Folger, R., Lavelle, J. J., Umphress, E. E., Gee, J. O. (2002). Is virtue its own reward? Self-sacrificial decisions for the sake of fairness. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 89 (1), 839-65. Abstract: We investigate the ways in which concern for fairness influences decision-making. We use a paradigm previously shown to illustrate circumstances under which a decision maker sacrifices some of his or her own potential for financial gain to punish...
The wheel of virtue: Art, literature, and moral knowledge
Carroll, N. (2002). The wheel of virtue: Art, literature, and moral knowledge. The Journal of aesthetics and art criticism, 60 (1): 3-26. Abstract: By the common consent of all mankind who have read, poetry takes the highest place in literature. That nobility of expression, and all but divine grace of words, which she is bound to attain before she can make her footing good, is not compatible...
Compassion as a Political Virtue
Whitebrook, M. (2002). Compassion as a Political Virtue. Political Studies, 50 (3): 529-44. Abstract: The place of compassion in political thought and practice is debatable. This debate can be clarified by stipulating 'compassion' as referring to the practice of acting on the feeling of 'pity'; in addition, compassion might best...
Virtue Is Good Business: Confucianism as a Practical Business Ethics
Romar, E. J. (2002). Virtue Is Good Business: Confucianism as a Practical Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 38 (1-2): 119-31. Abstract: This paper argues Confucianism is a compelling managerial ethic for several reasons: 1) Confucianism is compatible with accepted managerial practices. 2) It requires individuals and organizations to make a positive contribution to society. 3...
Organizational and Leadership Virtues and the Role of Forgiveness
Cameron, K. (2002). Organizational and Leadership Virtues and the Role of Forgiveness. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9 (1): 33-48. Abstract: The investigation of virtues in organizational life has been neglected. Systematic studies of the development and demonstration of virtue have been all but absent in the organizational sciences. This article highlights the potential impact of...
The case against teaching virtue for pay: Socrates and the Sophists
Corey, D. (2002). The case against teaching virtue for pay: Socrates and the Sophists. History of Political Thought, 23 (2): 189-210. Abstract: The practice of teaching virtue (arete) for pay was typical of the Greek sophists but consistently eschewed by their contemporary Socrates. Plato and Xenophon offer various explanations for Socrates' refusal to take pay, explanations intended...
The Neural Correlates of Moral Sensitivity: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Basic and Moral Emotions
Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Eslinger, P. J., Bramati, I. E., Mourão-Miranda, J., Andreiuolo, P. A., & Pessoa, L. (2002). The Neural Correlates of Moral Sensitivity: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Basic and Moral Emotions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22 (7): 2730-6. Abstract: Humans are endowed with a natural sense of fairness that permeates social perceptions and interactions. This moral stance is so ubiquitous that we may not notice it as a fundamental component of daily decision making and in the workings of many...
Educating Moral People: A Caring Alternative to Character Education
Noddings, N. Educating Moral People: A Caring Alternative to Character Education. Williston, VT: Teachers College Press, 2002. An alternative to character education is care ethics. The ethics of care can be seen as fundamentally relational, not individual-agent-based in the way of virtue ethics, and the ethics of care is more indirect than character education. After an introductory...
Plutarch's Lives: Exploring Virtue and Vice
Duff, T. E. Plutarch's Lives: Exploring Virtue and Vice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. This book lucidly explains how the Parallel Lives of Plutarch (c. AD 45-120) are more than mere `sources' for history. The Lives offer us a unique insight into the reception of Classical Greece and Republican Rome in the Greek world of the second...
Virtue Ethics: An Introduction
Taylor, Richard. Virtue Ethics: An Introduction. Amherst, NY : Prometheus Books, 2002. In this fresh evaluation of Western ethics, noted philosopher Richard Taylor argues that philosophy must return to the classical notion of virtue as the basis of ethics. To ancient Greek and Roman philosophers, ethics was chiefly the study of how individuals...
Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy
Foot, Philippa. Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. "Foot stands out among contemporary ethical theorists because of her conviction that virtues and vices are more central ethical notions than rights, duties, justice, or consequences--the primary focus of most other contemporary moral theorists.....
The Value of Human Differences: South Asian Buddhist Contributions Toward an Embodied Virtue Theory
Mrozik, S. (2002). The Value of Human Differences: South Asian Buddhist Contributions Toward an Embodied Virtue Theory. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 9: 1-33. Abstract: What are virtues? Are these best described as cognitive and affective aspects of a person's psyche, or can virtues also be described as features, postures, and movements of a person's body? This paper explores the relationship between...
Mindful Virtue, Mindful Reverence
Goodenough, U., & Woodruff, P. (2001). Mindful Virtue, Mindful Reverence. Zygon Journal of Religion and Science, 36 (4): 585-95. Abstract: How does one talk about moral thought and moral action as a religious naturalist? We explore this question by considering two human capacities: the capacity for mindfulness, and the capacity for virtue. We suggest that mindfulness is deeply...
An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment
Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment. Science, 293 (5537): 2105-8. Abstract: The long-standing rationalist tradition in moral psychology emphasizes the role of reason in moral judgment. A more recent trend places increased emphasis on emotion. Although both reason and emotion are likely to play important roles in moral...
Emotions and Ethics in Buddhist History: The Sinhala Thupavamsa and the Work of Virtue
Berkwitz, S. C. (2001). Emotions and Ethics in Buddhist History: The Sinhala Thupavamsa and the Work of Virtue. Religion, 31 (2): 155-73. Abstract: While literature is often thought to be a product of culture, the writing of history in medieval Sri Lanka was based on the assumption that texts themselves can produce changes in culture by making people into virtuous devotees. A study of the...
The moral foundation of medical leadership: The professional virtues of the physician as fiduciary of the patient
Chervenak, F. A., & McCullough, L. B. (2001). The moral foundation of medical leadership: The professional virtues of the physician as fiduciary of the patient. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 184 (5): 875-80. Abstract: Leadership in medicine, as in other settings, should be based on values that provide appropriate direction for the use of institutional power and authority. Leadership also requires managerial competence. Managerial knowledge and skills can...
Confucius, Gandhi and the Aesthetics of Virtue
Gier, N. F. (2001). Confucius, Gandhi and the Aesthetics of Virtue. Asian Philosophy, 11 (1): 41-54. Abstract: Both Confucius and Gandhi were fervent political reformers and this paper argues that their views of human nature and the self-society-world relationship are instructively similar. Gandhi never accepted Shankara's doctrine of maya and the...
Civic Virtue and Religious Reason: An Islamic Counterpublic
Hirschkind, C. (2001). Civic Virtue and Religious Reason: An Islamic Counterpublic. Cultural Anthropology, 16 (1): 3-34. Abridged Introduction: Since the rise of modernization theory in the 1960s up through present concerns with globalization, a growing body of anthropological and sociological scholarship has explored the impact of modern media technologies on religious...
Choosing Character: Responsibility for Virtue and Vice
Jacobs, J. A. Choosing Character: Responsibility for Virtue and Vice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001. Are there key respects in which character and character defects are voluntary? Can agents with serious vices be rational agents? Jonathan Jacobs answers in the affirmative. Moral character is shaped through voluntary habits, including the ways we habituate...
Virtue, Vice, and Value
Hurka, Thomas. Virtue, Vice, and Value. New York: Oxford University Press US, 2003. What are virtue and vice, and how do they relate to other moral properties such as goodness and rightness? Thomas Hurka defends a distinctive perfectionist view according to which the virtues are higher-level intrinsic goods, ones that involve morally...
Virtue Theory as a Dynamic Theory of Business
Arjoon, S. (2000). Virtue Theory as a Dynamic Theory of Business. Journal of Business Ethics, 28 (2): 159-78. Abstract: This paper develops a meta-theory of business based on virtue theory which links the concept of virtues, the common good, and the dynamic economy into a unifying and comprehensive theory of business. Traditional theories and models of business...
Morality De-Kanted or the Biological Roots of Moral Behavior
Schroeder, D. J. (2000). Morality De-Kanted or the Biological Roots of Moral Behavior. International Journal of Value-Based Management, 13 (3): 297-308. Abstract: The ethical and moral behavior of Homo sapiens is no longer the exclusive domain of religion and philosophy because we recognize that such behavior affects the reproductive success of individuals within the species. We are a social species and...
Educating Youth for Decency and Virtue: Law-Related Education and Its Implication for Character Educators
Cornett, J. W., Chant, R. H. (2000). Educating Youth for Decency and Virtue: Law-Related Education and Its Implication for Character Educators. The entity from which ERIC acquires the content, including journal, organization, and conference names, or by means of online submission from the author. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 39 (1): 26-31. Abstract: Article presents aspects of law-related education and character education, both recent educational reform movements to promote positive values in youth. Discusses ways that the two reform efforts are in conflict with each other, and suggests...
An inquiry into moral virtues, especially compassion, in psychiatric nurses: findings from a Delphi study
Armstrong, A. E., Parsons, S., & Barker, P. J. (2000). An inquiry into moral virtues, especially compassion, in psychiatric nurses: findings from a Delphi study. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 7 (4): 297-305. Abstract: A three-round Delphi study was conducted to gather data on ethical reasoning among psychiatric nurses (N = 26 in round one (R1), decreasing to N = 14 in the final round (R3)). Transcripts of questionnaires were carefully read and compared. Responses...
‘Any animal whatever'. Darwinian building blocks of morality in monkeys and apes
Flack, J. C., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2000). ‘Any animal whatever'. Darwinian building blocks of morality in monkeys and apes. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7 (1-2): 1-29. Abstract: To what degree has biology influenced and shaped the development of moral systems? One way to determine the extent to which human moral systems might be the product of natural selection is to explore behaviour in other species that is analogous...
Virtue, Personality, and Social Relations: Self-Control as the Moral Muscle
Baumeister, R. F., & Exline, J. J. (1999). Virtue, Personality, and Social Relations: Self-Control as the Moral Muscle. Journal of Personality, 67 (6): 1165-94. Abstract: Morality is a set of rules that enable people to live together in harmony, and virtue involves internalizing those rules. Insofar as virtue depends on overcoming selfish or antisocial impulses for the sake of what is best for the group or collective...
Moral Philosophy Meets Social Psychology: Virtue Ethics and the Fundamental Attribution Error
Harman, G. (1999). XIV—Moral Philosophy Meets Social Psychology: Virtue Ethics and the Fundamental Attribution Error. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 99 (3): 315-31. Abstract: Ordinary moral thought often commits what social psychologists call 'the fundamental attribution error'. This is the error of ignoring situational factors and overconfidently assuming that distinctive behaviour or patterns of behaviour...
Teaching Virtue: The Contrasting Arguments (Dissoi Logoi) of Antiquity
Roochnik, D. (1997). Teaching Virtue: The Contrasting Arguments (Dissoi Logoi) of Antiquity. Journal of Education, 179 (1): 1-13. Abstract: Explores the question of teaching virtue, which has been discussed for at least 2,500 years. The anonymous "Dissoi Logoi" of ancient Greece contained a series of arguments on both sides of the question, and the author concluded that...
The virtues in medical practice
Pellegrino, E. D., & Thomasma, D. C. The virtues in medical practice. New York: Oxford University Press US, 1993. In recent years, virtue theories have enjoyed a renaissance of interest among general and medical ethicists. This book offers a virtue-based ethic for medicine, the health professions, and health care. Beginning with a historical account of the concept...
After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory
MacIntyre, Alasdair C. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. London: Duckworth, 1985. After Virtue is an extended philosophical argument, informed by linguistic, historical, and sociological analyses, that seeks to explain the continuing irresolution of modern moral disputes; to critique the modern bureaucratic state and the claims of...
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